Lecture 1: Introduction to Astronomy Astronomical Coordinate Systems:. Astronomers base their measurement of positions of objects on the concept of the celestial sphere upon which all objects are assumed to lie regardless of their true distances. The celestial poles and equator are the projections of the Earth's poles and equator onto the sky.

The meridian is the circle running from one pole to the other through a point directly overhead for an observer. Several different coordinate systems are useful depending on the situation:. Equatorial coordinates: An Earth-based system useful for pointing telescopes with axes that are parallel to the Earth's polar axis and equator called equatorial mount telescopes. This system was the first used in compiling stellar catalogues, and the two coordinates used to define the location of an object, right ascension abbreviated often as or RA and declination or DECare in common use today.

Right ascension is analogous to longitude, is usually measured in units of time: hours, minutes, seconds. The zero-point for right ascension is the Vernal Equinox also called the Aries Point in the textlocation on the celestial equator of sunrise on the first day of spring.

Declination is analogous to latitude and is measured as north or south of the celestial equator. Declination is usually expressed in degrees, minutes of arc, and seconds of arc. Another complication with right ascension arises from the changing angular size of circles of constant right ascension when moving from the celestial equator towards the celestial pole, the circles shrink by a factor of cos DEC which must be taken into account.

It is very important to keep minutes of time and arc minutes clear! When using equatorial coordinates, the H. The hour angle is the distance in time units that object lies east or west of the meridian. It is related to time as measured by the stars called sidereal time via the relation. If the H.

This illustrates how the equatorial system accounts for the rotation of the Earth and explains why early astronomers chose to use time units for right ascension. Coordinates based on a telescope's location can be advantageous as can coordinates based on the plane of the Solar System or on the plane of the Milky Way galaxy.

Spherical trigonometry is handy for converting between coordinates systems. Positions of stars and other objects in the sky can be used for navigation now laregely made obsolete by Global Positioning Systems. For example, the elevation of the North Star above an observer's horizon is equal to the observer's latitude:.

The Earth's rotation is used a basic unit of time measure -- the day. If you keep track of the intervals between successive times of maximum elevation of the Sun above the horizon e. These differences result from two causes -- first, we measure time with respect to the Earth's rotation axis and hence equator while the Sun's motion is along the ecliptic, and second, the Earth's orbit is elliptical and the Earth moves faster along its orbit when closer to the Sun.

We also use the time that it takes the Earth to orbit the Sun as a time unit, the year. Note that several different lengths of a year can be defined depending on what reference is used:. Seasons on our Home Planet. Seasons result from the The seasons are obviously opposite in the Earth's two hemispheres.The lecture notes were taken in the Fall of by Jeremy Schnittman, who as a student in the subject, agreed to take notes and to format them using LaTeX.

He used Professor Paul Schechter's handwritten notes in producing them. The figures were produced by Caitlin Millard during June-August Used with permission. As of the date of publication, only lecture notes for sessions 1 through 11 were available.

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### PUBLIC LECTURE SERIES

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## 2020 Astronomy Lecture Series

Lecture Notes. Need help getting started? Don't show me this again Welcome!Each event features a noted scientist who discusses a different cosmic topic. To attend the event online, sign up for Lecture Announcements below, and a link will be sent to you for each event.

List of Past Public Lectures. Google Maps. Steps and a slope give access to the main entrance of the building. For directions, call An American Sign Language interpreter is available for deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals with advance notice. Guests must request the interpreter at least four business days prior to the public lecture. To schedule an interpreter, please call the public outreach office at After the lectures, and weather permitting, Johns Hopkins University invites attendees to see the celestial sights through the Morris W.

The observatory is also open to the public every Friday evening. For more information, contact the observatory at or visit the observatory's website. Live and Online Free Public Lectures. Upcoming Lectures.

Thank you for your understanding and we will keep you apprised if the lecture is rescheduled. Before planning to attend your next lecture, please check the listing below. Filter Upcoming Lectures.

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Upcoming Lectures Clear All Submit. Results: 2. Lecture Announcements Sign up to receive updates for future and archived public lecture events. Public Lecture Series host, Dr. Frank Summers, speaks to the audience from the Space Telescope Science Institute Auditorium about the latest news from the cosmos.We are working with The Huntington to reschedule these programs and will post updated information here when it becomes available.

Each year the Observatories organizes a series of public lectures on current astronomical topics. These lectures are given by astronomers from the Carnegie Observatories as well as other research institutions.

The lectures are geared to the general public and are free. The simulcast room adjacent to the Auditorium will also accommodate overflow attendance. Directions can be found here. The lectures are free. Because seating is limited, however, reservations are required for each lecture through Eventbrite links below.

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Additionally, the lectures will be streamed live through Livestream and simultaneously on our Facebook CarnegieAstro page. For information, please call Doors open at p. Each Lecture will be preceded by a brief musical performance by students from The Colburn School starting at p.

Lectures start at p. Light refreshments will be available.

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The latter was confirmed by Carnegie astronomer Edwin Hubble, using his observations at Mt. Wilson to discover the Universe as we now know it to be.

Can't make it to the event? Watch it live online. The sky is full of cosmic explosions and stars torn apart by black holes, which are only the faintest flashes of starlight by the time they reach the Earth. Astronomy in the s will be revolutionized by new sensitive surveys to map these exciting transient and time-varying phenomenon.

French will lead us through the new astrophysics that can be uncovered with time-sensitive observations in the next decade. Solange V. For the past 20 years, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey — a collaboration among astronomers worldwide — has been working to gather spectral and photometric data covering one third of the sky and analyzing millions of individual objects. The making of every telescope and its instrumentation requires extraordinary creativity, innovation, and expertise, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has pioneered the development of novel equipment designed to address many crucial astronomical questions; the resulting information is providing a rich legacy for future research.

In this lecture, Dr. Ramirez will describe how SDSS-V, the latest phase of this massive project, is designing and building the instrumentation that will reveal information about the universe in unprecedented detail. Hubble's Troublesome Constant Dr.

## 2020 Astronomy Lecture Series

Nearly years ago, Carnegie astronomer Edwin Hubble made two truly revolutionary discoveries. First, that our Milky Way was only one of many galaxies in a vast universe; and second, that the farther these galaxies were from us, the faster they appeared to be moving away.

The ratio between these speeds and distances, which we now call the Hubble Constant, is a fundamental quantity that sets the scale for the size and age of the entire cosmos. For decades, its precise value has been a source of contention among astronomers. Even today, with the most powerful telescopes at our disposal, tension between different groups remains. Tickets will be available starting April 14th at Eventbrite.

Skip to main content. Monday, February 24, PastedGraphicWe invite you to come along on a series of voyages to explore the universe as astronomers understand it today. Beyond Earth are vast and magnificent realms full of objects that have no counterpart on our home planet. Nevertheless, we hope to show you that the evolution of the universe has been directly responsible for your presence on Earth today. Such discoveries are what make astronomy such an exciting field for scientists and many others—but you will explore much more than just the objects in our universe and the latest discoveries about them.

We will pay equal attention to the process by which we have come to understand the realms beyond Earth and the tools we use to increase that understanding. We gather information about the cosmos from the messages the universe sends our way. Because the stars are the fundamental building blocks of the universe, decoding the message of starlight has been a central challenge and triumph of modern astronomy.

By the time you have finished reading this text, you will know a bit about how to read that message and how to understand what it is telling us. Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4. Skip to Content. Astronomy Introduction. Table of contents. Chapter Outline 1. Figure 1. These two interacting islands of stars galaxies are so far away that their light takes hundreds of millions of years to reach us on Earth photographed with the Hubble Space Telescope.

Noll STScl. This image of Mars is centered on the Valles Marineris Mariner Valley complex of canyons, which is as long as the United States is wide. We observe the remains of a star that was seen to explode in our skies in and was, briefly, bright enough to be visible during the daytime.

Today, the remnant is called the Crab Nebula and its central region is seen here.

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Such exploding stars are crucial to the development of life in the universe. Hester Arizona State University. Previous Next. We recommend using a citation tool such as this one.Toolbar items Back to site. Manage Administration menu Tools. Search Search. FlexSlider Examples FlexSlider examples menu. Anonymous User account actions Log in. James Josephides.

The Royal Astronomical Society offers its condolences to the family, friends and colleagues of Professor Margaret Burbidge, who has died at the age of A member of the Society for 80 years, Margaret Burbidge was a global leader in….

David Kaplan. RAS Quilt Project - an update. Royal Mail stamps celebrate RAS bicentennial.

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RAS Bicentennial Event. Apr Is the study of the CGM fulfilling its promise of revealing the processes that drive galaxy evolution? Friday, 17 of April - Tuesday, 21 of April - From Microbes to Mars: How can we use bacteria in the search for life beyond the Earth?

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How to Measure Distance in Space? - Episode 2 - Visaipalagai

Edward Prather. Timothy Slater. Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, 3rd Edition. Adams, Gina Brissenden This Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, 3rd Edition book is not really ordinary book, you have it then the world is in your hands. The benefit you get by reading this book is actually information inside this reserve incredible fresh, you will get information which is getting deeper an individual read a lot of information you will get.

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